TEST: Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury: 36 Years of Progress (1985-2021)

TEST: Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury: 36 Years of Progress (1985-2021)


$200.00 USD


$250.00 USD

Provided by the American Thoracic Society
Release Date: September 16, 2022

Program Description

The term transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was coined in 1985 to describe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after transfusion, when another ARDS risk factor was absent; TRALI cases were mostly associated with donor  leukocyte antibody. In 2001, plasma from multiparous donors was implicated in TRALI in a randomized controlled trial in Sweden.

In 2003 and in many years thereafter, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reported that TRALI was the leading cause of death from transfusion in the United States. In 2003, the United Kingdom was the first among many countries to successfully reduce TRALI using male-predominant plasma. These successes are to be celebrated. Nevertheless, questions remain about the mechanisms of non-antibody TRALI, the role of blood products in the development of ARDS in patients receiving massive transfusion, the causes of unusual TRALI cases, and how to reduce inaccurate diagnoses of TRALI in clinical practice.

Regarding the latter, a study in 2013–2015 at 169 U.S. hospitals found that many TRALI diagnoses did not meet clinical definitions. In 2019, a consensus panel established a more precise terminology for clinical diagnosis: TRALI type I and TRALI type II are cases where transfusion is the likely cause, and ARDS are cases where transfusion is not the likely cause. For accurate diagnosis using these clinical definitions, critical care or pulmonary expertise is needed to distinguish between permeability versus hydrostatic pulmonary edema, to determine whether an ARDS risk factor is present, and, if so, to determine whether respiratory function was stable within the 12 hours before transfusion.

Target Audience

Pulmonologists, critical care specialists, translational researchers, and clinicians

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, learners should be able to:

  • Better diagnose transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) type I
  • Better diagnose TRALI type II
  • Better diagnose acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a transfused patient

Course summary

Available Credit:
1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit

Format: Journal


The American Thoracic Society is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit Type Credit/Points Credit Designation Statement
AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ 1.00 The American Thoracic Society designates this Journal for a maximum of 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.


Article Authorship Disclosures (as submitted to the ATS prior to article publication date)

Pearl Toy, M.D. (University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA) reported receiving consulting fees from British Society for Haematology, and serving on an advisory board for Anthos.

Mark R. Looney, M.D. (University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA) reported no relevant financial relationships.

Mark Popovsky, M.D. (Velico Medical, Beverly, MA, USA) reported no relevant financial relationships.

Miodrag Palfi, M.D., Ph.D. (Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, östergötland, Sweden) reported no relevant financial relationships.

Gösta Berlin, M.D., Ph.D. (Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, östergötland, Sweden) reported no relevant financial relationships.

Catherine E. Chapman, M.D. (NHS Blood and Transplant, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom) reported no relevant financial relationships.

Paula Bolton-Maggs, M.D. (Manchester Blood Center, Manchester, United Kingdom) reported receiving consulting fees from British Society for Haematology.

Michael A. Matthay, M.D. (University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA) reported receiving grants from Genentec-Roche, and consulting fees from Citius Pharmaceuticals, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceuticals, and Gilead Pharmaceuticals.

Off-Label Usage Disclosure


Disclosures of AnnalsATS CME Planners

The Annals of the American Thoracic Society (AnnalsATS) original research, commentaries, reviews, and educational content of interest to clinicians and clinical investigators in pediatric and adult pulmonary and sleep medicine and medical critical care. The scope of the journal encompasses content that is applicable to clinical practice, the formative and continuing education of clinical specialists, and the advancement of public health.

The publication of articles that meet these goals by itself is only one step in a multi-step process for the translation of evidence-based improvements in are to clinical practice. Testing for CME credit is designed to function as a next step in the process. This is accomplished through a series of questions written by the author(s) to test that readers have the tools needed to translate recommendations for diagnostic and therapeutic clinical care into clinical practice. Members of the AnnalsATS editorial board review these questions and edit these questions for clarity, educational content, and the quality of the evidence.


To receive credit for this journal article:

  1. Read the journal article. Keep track of how long it takes you to read it.
  2. Once you open the article, the Post-Test becomes available. After reading the article, answer the post-test questions. You must answer all questions correctly to earn credit. You may take the test as many times as you like.
  3. Once you pass the Post-Test, the Evaluation becomes available. Answer all the evaluation questions.
  4. Once you complete the evaluation, select the amount of credit to receive based on the time it took you to read the article.
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